N°1 – Tony – Quelques éléments sur la langue japonaise

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« Sûrement très complexe » pour certains, « Assurément incompréhensible » pour d’autres… Pourtant, la langue japonaise n’est pas si difficile, elle est juste « différente ». Et ce, surtout pour les occidentaux, plus habitués à un système alphabétique.Pourquoi ? Et bien tout simplement parce que la logique de cette langue est à l’opposé de celle du Français :

un verbe vient toujours en fin de phrase, et ne se conjugue pas selon la personne (je, tu , il…etc)
Les adjectifs ne s’accordent pas non plus avec le sujet. Ils sont donc invariables en genre et en nombre (pas de féminin ni de masculin ; et pas de singulier ni de pluriel). Exemple :

白い 車 です « shiroi kuruma desu » = c’est (ce sont) une (des) voiture(s) blanche(s)

Les noms aussi ne varient ni en genre ni en nombre. C’est le contexte qui précisera. Exemple :

着物 です « kimono desu » (c’est un kimono / ce sont des kimonos)

ni « être » ni « avoir » ni aucun verbe auxiliaire d’ailleurs (pouvoir, devoir, vouloir, etc).

il n’existe que 2 temps : « l’accompli » et le « non-accompli ». Ce n’est que le sens de la phrase qui déterminera les valeurs « passé », « présent » ou « futur ».

aucune obligation de respecter la règle immuable du « sujet-verbe-complément » si caractéristique de notre langue. Le Japonais se fonde plus sur une structure simple et souple de type « thèmecomplément», très souvent agrémentée de particules de toutes sortes en fin de phrase pour permettre d’indiquer, par exemple, l’état émotionnel (surprise, colère, etc)…

合気道 いる « aikido ni iru » (je pratique l’aïkido)

フィリップ 私 の 先生 です « Filippu wa watashi no sensei desu » (Philippe est mon professeur)

おもしろい 。 « Omoshiroi na » (tiens, c’est intéressant)

面白い « Omoshiroi ne » (c’est intéressant, pas vrai ?)

Nous pouvons donc déjà assurer que la pratique orale du Japonais est réellement accessible. Par contre, vous vous en doutez, l’apprentissage de son écriture est, quant à lui, beaucoup plus long… Une écriture qui est venue de Chine au VIIème siècle. A cette époque, les Japonais savent déjà parler la langue, mais ne possèdent pas de système d’écriture, contrairement à la Chine qui est un pays plus avancé techniquement. C’est donc petit à petit que les Japonais vont s’imprégner de la culture chinoise et finir par adopter leur système d’écriture, à savoir, les idéogrammes chinois, ou kanji. Mais ces idéogrammes ne sont pas tous adaptés à leur langue. En général, la prononciation est semblable, mais pour beaucoup la signification diffère. De plus, les kanji chinois sont composés de beaucoup trop de traits et sont trop nombreux (environ 60.000). C’est pourquoi, quand les Japonais commencent à s’écarter des Chinois et de leur culture vers la fin du VIIIème siècle, ils vont les simplifier :

Et aussi créer 2 nouveaux systèmes d’écriture simplifiée conçus pour être appris et tracés plus facilement. Ce sont les kana :

Les hiragana: syllabaire de 50 sons utilisé aujourd’hui pour donner la lecture des kanjis et écrire les mots japonais auxquels ne correspond aucun kanji.

Les katakana : syllabaire de 50 sons qui sert principalement à traduire les noms et mots étrangers, ainsi que les onomatopées.

Exemple : チ-ズ « chīzu » de cheese = fromage comme en anglais Les japonais peuvent aussi retranscrire leurs sonorités dans l’alphabet latin, appelé romanji (voir les exemples)

Aujourd’hui, la langue japonaise est quand même réputée pour être l’une des plus dures au monde. Les écoliers apprennent encore environ 1000 kanji en primaire et 1000 en secondaire. Ajoutons que le japonais a aussi gardé du chinois ancien l’usage d’écrire les textes par colonnes, de haut en bas, et en commençant par la droite. Donc le sens de lecture d’un livre écrit en japonais est opposé au système latin, notre dernière page est leur première, c’est-à-dire que le début est au verso du livre qu’on lit de droite à gauche et de haut en bas…

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